Sunday, October 10, 2004

Symbiosis - Wikipedia

"The biologist Lynn Margulis, contends that symbiosis is a major driving force behind evolution. She considers Darwin's notion of evolution, driven by competition, as incomplete, and claims evolution is strongly based on co-operation, interaction, and mutual dependence among organisms. According to Margulis and Sagan (1986), 'Life did not take over the globe by combat, but by networking'. As in humans, organisms that cooperate with others of their own or different species can sometimes outcompete those that don't."
Symbiosis - Wikipedia:


Anonymous said...

Symbiosis - EvoWiki: "Symbionts and their 'Extended Phenotype'
Symbionts are often thought of as having effects on their host's bodies, and would therefore traditionally be thought of as being part of the host's environment. However, when taking a gene centered look at evolution it is often useful to think of the host's body as being that of both the symbionts, since the genes of both species contribute to the 'host' body. The genes in the body could be split up into two groups -- those of the two different symbionts. In the case of a parasite-host relationship the two groups may have a different 'aim' (here using the Selfish gene metaphor of a conscious Natural Selection), as the two species reproduce in different ways. For the host to reproduce it wants to be finding food and mate(s), while it may be a necessary part of the parasite's lifecycle that its host must be eaten by a different species (the next host species in its cycle).

In a mutual relationship, however, the two species usually have very similar aims. The DNA of the two symbionts may be kept in separate cells or organelles, but some of its phenotypic effects may be on the cells which contain the other species' DNA, and may be positively selected because of this. Here the boundary between the two species becomes blured to the point where it may be irrelevant. This is Endosymbiosis.
The endosymbiotic theory of the origin of mitochondria, chloroplasts and possibly some other eukaryotic cell organelles are evolved from bacteria which lived mutualistically with proto-eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes the cell's DNA is separated into mitochondria, chloroplasts (in plants) and the nucleus. The three organelles have mutualistically evolved and their 'goals' are so similar that to view them as separate species serves little purpose, even though they h"

Gene - EvoWiki: "Introduction
A gene is roughly defined as a 'unit of heredity'. The exact definition of the word varies slightly, but all definitions refer to a section of a chromosome. Before, the discovery of DNA the word simply meant an arbitrary unit of heredity: any section of a chromosome. Since the discovery of DNA and development of modern genetics, and the knowledge of processes such as mutation, crossing over and transcription have meant that a number of different definitions of gene have arisen. Benzer (1957), Dawkins (1978 & 1982) and Mayr (Dawkins 1982) have coined a number of new terms to avoid confusion. "

Anonymous said...

Endosymbiotic theory - EvoWiki: "Endosymbiotic theory states that the cellular organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts (more generally, plastids) of eukaryotic cells were originally free living prokaryotic organisms.
The theory was first proposed by Andreas Schimper in 1883, but was neglected untill the discovery of mitochondrial dna in the 1960s.
The endosymbiont theory of mitochondria and chloroplasts was proposed by Lynn Margulis of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1981, Margulis published Symbiosis in Cell Evolution in which she proposed that the eukaryotic cells originated as communities of interacting entities that joined together in a specific order. The prokaryote elements could have entered a host cell, perhaps as an indigested prey or as a parasite. Over time, the elements and the host could have developed a mutually beneficial interaction, later evolving in an obligatory symbiosis.[1] (

Evidence for Endosymbiotic Theory
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own circular DNA. "

Talk:Endosymbiotic theory
From EvoWiki
It seems logical that the work of naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck be included here. He tried but could not prove there is a biological "will" or consciousness that can change the anatomy of a species. Charles Darwin could not escape the idea in terms of "use or disuse" of organs which today has to include organelles inside cells that used to be independent organisms during the very early stages of evolution. As a writer working on the atheism of knowledge I follow how biology seems to be approaching the material basis for the existence of a soul in humans and a spirit in animals that guides evolution when the conditions are appropriate. This new frontier requires that biologists begin looking inside the atom at the electrons themselves where life continues to function in terms of memory. I claim that the genes in DNA are the electrons that hold the double helix together as a molecule. Joe Duhaime P.O. Box 24533 Denver, Colorado 80224 USA

Duhaime, your ideas (as expressed here) are unconvincing, at best. We know that mutations (the ultimate 'driving force' behind evolution, or at least the ultimate source of variation for natural selection to work with) are statistically random with respect to the needs of an organism -- see also: "Luria-Delbruck experiments" -- so where does a "biological 'will' " come into it? Your last two sentences, about "the electrons themselves where life consinues to function" and "the genes in DNA are the electrons", ignore various facts which are actually known about genes and atoms and so on; as best I can tell, you're pretty much spewing word salad here. New theories are great. Spouting off semi-random verbiage in ignorance of the evidence... isn't. I would strongly suggest that you learn some real biology, or, if you actually do knw some real biology, that you allow yourself to incorporate that knowledge into your speculations.

stars2man said...


Carole Jackson
Bottom Line's Daily Health News

More and more people are making a connection between their health and the Eastern concept of spiritual and physical (or "life force") energy. For those interested in this belief system, one of the core concepts is chakras. Chakras are energy centers in the body. Each one of the seven chakras represents a different area of life. According to Carolyn Myss, PhD, in her book Anatomy of the Spirit, you can best understand and work with your chakras if you think about yourself as an energy being as well as a physical being.

Many people believe that the chakras interact with the endocrine and nervous systems, and that each one relates to a particular area of the body as well as to consciousness. The theory is that emotional issues manifest themselves physically in certain body zones -- and conversely, that physical ailments can find their roots in emotional issues tied to the specific area in which the ailment is centered.

The value of understanding the chakras is that when you are experiencing stress in an area of your life, the corresponding chakra will reflect that energy block. Unless you address the problem and relieve the stress it is causing you, eventually it can translate into illness.

I spoke with Raven Keyes, a certified Reiki master, hypnotherapist and meditation teacher who has students throughout the world. Reiki is a form of energy healing that clears and balances the chakras as well as other energy points. Keyes has provided Reiki in the operating room at New York Presbyterian Hospital -- once to an open-heart patient of renowned cardiac surgeon Mehmet C. Oz, MD, and a second time to a double lung transplant patient. She says that part of achieving good health in all areas of life is becoming balanced -- and that balancing your chakra energy centers each day is vital to bringing that about.


There are seven chakras, structured to follow the path of human development and maturation, with the first associated in part with family and clan... and the last with spiritual connection. Specifically...

Chakra One: Root chakra. Located in the pelvic region, this chakra encompasses everything that is manifested in your life, the material world and the people around you, especially your family and feelings of safety and security. Sometimes called the "tribal" chakra, it is associated with the adrenal glands, which are in charge of fight-or-flight responses. If you are out of balance, you act out of fear and actually can cause what you fear to come about, says Keyes. The emotional situations this chakra relates to are frustration and rage, as well as fear and depression. Physical ailments that can be manifested due to root chakra issues include lower back pain, sciatica, hemorrhoids, constipation, obesity and weight problems.

Chakra Two: Sacral chakra. This is located several inches below the navel, the creative center, and relates to relationships in the outside world. Not surprisingly, the sacral chakra is associated with the sexual glands and organs and a willingness to experience emotions. When this chakra is out of balance, the result is despair or hopelessness and a tendency toward overindulgence in general because of neediness. Physically, chakra two issues can be connected to fertility and gynecological problems, sexual potency, kidney problems and muscle cramps/spasms.

Chakra Three: Solar plexus chakra. Above the navel and below the sternum, this chakra represents the relationship to one's self and has to do with personal honor, self-esteem, perceptions of power, control and freedom. A problem that causes imbalance in the solar plexus chakra results in feelings of weakness and loss, anxiety, guilt and doubt. The associated body part is the pancreas. Not surprisingly, chakra three issues can create problems in your midsection, including food allergies, digestive disorders, diabetes, gallstones, arthritis, ulcers, liver complaints and eating disorders.

Chakra Four: Heart chakra. This is located in the center of the chest and is the "in-between" chakra. Those below it have to do with the earth and are primal. The ones above it connect to the more spiritual aspect of life. The heart chakra mixes the two and relates to love, compassion and forgiveness -- of others and especially of self. Keyes says that healers work from the heart chakra because love is the greatest healing force there is. An imbalance will cause feelings of loss, grief, anguish, worthlessness and the like. Although a feeling might start in another chakra, such as in the solar plexus chakra, it can manifest itself here. The heart chakra relates to the thymus gland, a central part of the immune response, and can lead to physical challenges that include heart conditions, lung problems, asthma, allergies, fatigue, breast cancer, bronchitis and pneumonia.

Chakra Five: Throat chakra. In the middle of the neck, this chakra has to do with expressing what you want and being able to put your desires for yourself out into the universe. It also relates to intuition and being receptive to the abundance of the universe coming back to you. A problem in this chakra shows in feelings of repression, an inability to express oneself and lack of inspiration. The chakra's associated body part is the thyroid. Physically, chakra five problems can be felt as sore throats, loss of voice, thyroid problems, mouth ulcers, teeth and gum condition, headaches and ear infections.

Chakra Six: Brow chakra. Also known as the third eye, this chakra is in the middle of your forehead between the brows. It represents wisdom and clairvoyance and willingness to learn from others. An imbalance shows in obsession or even insanity. It is associated with the pituitary gland, the controller of the endocrine glands' functions, and is manifested in ailments that include learning difficulties, brain tumor, blindness and deafness.

Chakra Seven: Crown chakra. The last chakra is at the top of the head, half in and half out of it, says Keyes. It connects the spiritual world with your spiritual center, and relates to the ability to trust life, values, ethics and courage and the ability to see the grander pattern of life. The physical association is with the pineal gland, which connects nervous system signals to the endocrine system. Unhealed issues in chakra seven can manifest as chronic exhaustion, depression and paralysis.


By increasing your awareness of the spiritual-physical connection, you can identify the unresolved issues that may be creating health challenges for you. When illness strikes, reflect on any underlying emotional issues that may be showing themselves. Often by confronting the emotions, the physical challenges can ease.

On a daily basis, the goal is to have all seven chakras in alignment, generally done through balancing exercises. It is possible to align all seven chakras in one brief meditation or to address specific problems in a chakra through what Keyes refers to as "spot-check meditations." Doing these will go far in helping you achieve balance in your life on a routine basis, and it is that harmony of physical, emotional, mental and spiritual that comes together in glowing health.

In the next issue of Daily Health News, I will explain Keyes' technique for balancing chakras.



In the Zone

Raven Keyes, certified Reiki master, hypnotherapist and meditation teacher who conducts workshops on chakras at Equinox Fitness Clubs in New York City.
First Printed: November 8, 2004

stars2man said...

Lynn Margulis: "Microbiologists had previously believed that evolution in the microbial world was the result of chance encounters (random genetic mutations), but margulis showed it was more likely the result of co-operation, “I argue that symbiosis is far more innovative in the generation of biological novelty than is the accumulation of chance mutations, although the latter is more commonly credited as the basis of evolutionary change.”[9] Just how revolutionary her thesis is can be appreciated from the following quote, “Only two english-language biology textbooks use symbiosis as their organizing principle. But neither book evaluates symbiosis as a major mechanism of generating heritable variation in evolution.”[10]

Margulis has extrapolated her views on the evolution of micro-organisms to evolution as a whole. Whilst darwinists emphasize the ‘war of all against all’ and thus ‘the survival of the fittest’ she points out that the major breakthroughs in evolution have occurred primarily through co-operation, “The new knowledge of biology alters our view of evolution as a chronic, bloody competition among individuals and species. Life did not take over the globe by combat, but by networking.”[11] Previous commentators, such as murray bookchin, have pointed out the many examples of co-operation and symbiosis to be found in nature but margulis has shown, scientifically, how co-operation was the key to evolution from the very start of life on Earth. Because micro-organisms are the basic building blocks of all living beings, the principle of symbiosis is the cornerstone of evolution. "