Thursday, December 23, 2004

Depression as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

Consciouness affects the complete human system

Depression as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis -- Barth et al. 66 (6): 802 -- Psychosomatic Medicine: "Depressive symptoms increase the risk of mortality in CHD patients. The risk of depressed patients dying in the 2 years after the initial assessment is two times higher than that of nondepressed patients (OR, 2.24; 1.37 3.60). This negative prognostic effect also remains in the long-term (OR, 1.78; 1.12 2.83) and after adjustment for other risk factors (HR [adj], 1.76; 1.27 2.43). The unfavorable impact of depressive disorders was reported for the most part in the form of crude odds ratios. Within the first 6 months, depressive disorders were found to have no significant effect on mortality (OR, 2.07; CI, 0.82 5.26). However, after 2 years, the risk is more than two times higher for CHD patients with clinical depression (OR, 2.61; 1.53 4.47). Only three studies reported adjusted hazard ratios for clinical depression and supported the results of the bivariate models. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms and clinical depression have an unfavorable impact on mortality in CHD patients. The results are limited by heterogeneity of the results in the primary studies. There is no clear evidence whether self-report or clinical interview is the more precise predictor. Nevertheless, depression has to be considered a relevant risk factor in patients with CHD. "

Sunday, December 12, 2004

A vision for the future of genomics research

Of particular interest, if all the mammalian genome is considerably similar from one animal to another then the detailed mouse genome can be used to define any sequence we seeek to change. If I choose to change a particular sequence, then this mouse map will help me find where the changes should ocurr. This should prove to be fun!


The practical consequences of the emergence of this new field are widely apparent. Identification of the genes responsible for human mendelian diseases, once a herculean task requiring large research teams, many years of hard work, and an uncertain outcome, can now be routinely accomplished in a few weeks by a single graduate student with access to DNA samples and associated phenotypes, an Internet connection to the public genome databases, a thermal cycler and a DNA-sequencing machine. With the recent publication of a draft sequence of the mouse genome11, identification of the mutations underlying a vast number of interesting mouse phenotypes has similarly been greatly simplified. Comparison of the human and mouse sequences shows that the proportion of the mammalian genome under evolutionary selection is more than twice that previously assumed.


When scientists compared the human and mouse genomes, they discovered that more than 90 percent of the mouse genome could be lined up with a region on the human genome.
genome.gov2002 Release The Mouse Genome And The Measure of Man: "Such research will have profound long-term consequences for medicine. It will help elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. This in turn will allow researchers to design better drugs and therapies for many illnesses.
'The mouse genome is a great resource for basic and applied medical research, meaning that much of what was done in a lab can now be done through the Web. Researchers can access this information through www.ensembl.org, where all the information is provided with no restriction,' says Ewan Birney, Ph.D., Ensembl coordinator at the European Bioinformatics Institute."